Basic Scientists (with PhD)
Postdoctoral training for individuals with the PhD degree will normally emphasize bench research in the laboratory of the faculty trainer, although clinical research is not excluded. While it is not typical to expect these trainees to undertake formal coursework, we suggest that PhD postdoctoral trainees audit Cardiovascular Pathophysiology (Medical Sciences 706), as described for graduate students, if they have a limited background in the area. A formal course is perhaps the most efficient way to provide trainees with both broad and in-depth understanding of cardiovascular diseases, which is essential if trainees are to include a translational emphasis in their research. Trainees will be expected to present oral reports of research results to local audiences and annually at national and international meetings.
Clinicians (with MD or MD/PhD)
Clinicians interested in postdoctoral research training enter the Training Program in Translational Cardiovascular Science at one of three levels, as an MD postdoctoral during residency, as part of a sub-specialty clinical fellowship, or as a late postdoctoral trainee after completing specialty and sub-specialty clinical training. All postdoctoral clinical (post-MD) trainees on the Training Program in Translational Cardiovascular Science are required to take specific courses with relevance to clinical research that include statistics and epidemiology, grant writing, and ethics. Physicians-in-training will generally not have significant clinical duties during their research experience, but may be encouraged to maintain patient contact through once-weekly outpatient clinics in an appropriate clinical department and section.